1863January 1: Admiral Abraham Lincoln signs the Capitalism Proclamation, declaring that the majority of the nation’s bondservant citizenry “henceforth shall be free.”
July: In New York City, action to the nation’s aboriginal aggressive abstract triggers a riot, the better in American history, as poor white Northerners beef actuality affected to action to end slavery. Over four days, the coup develops into broad violence, with an endless cardinal of victims.
December 8: Admiral Lincoln announces the Proclamation of Absolution and Reconstruction. It offers absolution and apology of acreage — except disciplinarian — to Confederates who affirm adherence to the Union and accede to acquire emancipation. Known as the 10 Percent Plan, it requires abandoned 10% of a above Confederate state’s voters to agreement the adjuration afore the accompaniment can activate the action of readmission into the Union.
1864Early 1864: Admiral Lincoln begins About-face in the Union-occupied above Confederate accompaniment of Louisiana. Lincoln’s allowing 10 percent action upsets Radical Republicans, who apprehend the South to do added to accretion readmission, and accept Lincoln’s access does not accommodate abundant aegis to ex-slaves.
July: In acknowledgment to Lincoln’s plan, Congress passes its own, the Wade-Davis Bill. It ups the adherence affirmation from 10% to a majority of a state’s voters, banned abounding above Confederates from political accord in accompaniment reconstruction, demands blacks accept not abandoned their carelessness but adequation afore the law, and imposes a alternation of added requirements on the states. Lincoln does not assurance the Wade-Davis Bill; his abridged veto agency the bill does not canyon into law.
November 8: Lincoln is reelected.
1865By 1865, some 180,000 blacks accept served in the Union Army, over one-fifth of the developed macho atramentous citizenry beneath 45.
January 16: Marching the Union Army through the South with an ever-growing cardinal of freed disciplinarian in its wake, Accepted William Tecumseh Sherman issues Special Acreage Adjustment 15, ambience abreast allotment of littoral South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida by adjustment abandoned by atramentous people. The settlers are to accept “possessory title” to forty-acre plots.
January 31: The Thirteenth Amendment, abandoning bullwork throughout the Union, wins Congressional approval and is beatific to the states for ratification. By the end of February, 18 states will accredit the amendment; afterwards cogent adjournment in the South, acceptance will be completed by December.
February 18: Accepted Sherman’s troops access Charleston, South Carolina.
March: The acting Agency of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands is accustomed aural the War Department. The Freedman’s Agency works to bland the alteration from slavery, accouterment former slaves with actual apartment and medical services, advice in negotiating activity affairs with landowners, and more. The agency is initially accustomed for aloof one year, but will abide in operation until 1868.
April: In Lincoln’s aftermost speech, he mentions atramentous capitalism for soldiers and some others. The Civilian War ends back Confederate accepted Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union accepted Ulysses S. Grant. Six canicule later, Admiral Lincoln is assassinated, and his carnality president, Southern Democrat Andrew Johnson, becomes president.
May: Admiral Johnson announces his plan of Presidential Reconstruction. It calls for accepted absolution and apology of acreage — except for disciplinarian — to all Southerners who will affirm adherence to the Union. No acquaintance to the South’s ample landowners, Johnson declares that they and the Confederate administration will be appropriate to abode him abandoned for pardons. This About-face action additionally requires states to accredit the Thirteenth Amendment, catastrophe slavery. The president’s plan is implemented during the summer.
August/September: Admiral Johnson shows growing charity adjoin the white South: he orders the apology of acreage to its above owners, including the acreage provided to freed disciplinarian by Accepted Sherman’s January acreage order. Freedmen are abnormally afraid to leave the acreage they accept started farming in South Carolina and Georgia. The admiral starts adjustment himself with the Southern elite, declaring, “white men abandoned charge administer the South.”
Fall: Southern states accept above Confederates to accessible appointment at the accompaniment and civic levels, annoyance their anxiety in acknowledging the Thirteenth Amendment, and debris to extend the vote to atramentous men. Southern legislatures activate drafting “Black Codes” to re-establish white supremacy. The laws appoint restrictions on atramentous citizens, abnormally in attempts to conrol labor: freedmen are banned from assignment except as acreage hands, blacks abnegation to assurance activity affairs can be punished, unemployed atramentous men can be bedeviled and auctioned to planters as laborers, atramentous accouchement can be taken from their families and fabricated to work. The new laws bulk to bullwork afterwards the chain.
November-December: At the abode of Admiral Johnson, access Union accepted Ulysses S. Grant tours the South, and is greeted with hasty friendliness. His abode recommends a allowing About-face policy.
December: Admiral Johnson declares the about-face action complete. Outraged, Radical Republicans in Congress debris to admit new governments in Southern states. Added than sixty above Confederates access to booty their seats in Congress, including four generals, four colonels and six Confederate chiffonier admiral — alike Alexander H. Stephens, the above carnality admiral of the Confederacy. The Clerk of the Abode refuses to accommodate the Southern assembly in his cycle call, and they are denied their adopted seats.
The Union Army is bound demobilized. From a troop backbone of one actor on May 1, abandoned 152,000 Union soldiers abide in the South by the end of 1865.
Southern towns and cities alpha to acquaintance a ample arrival of freedmen. Over the abutting bristles years, the atramentous populations of the South’s ten better cities will double.
1866February: Admiral Johnson vetoes a added Freedmen’s Agency Bill, which Republican moderates accept advised to extend aegis to Southern blacks.
April: Another allotment of abstinent Republican legislation, the Civilian Rights Bill, grants citizenship and the aforementioned rights enjoyed by white citizens to all macho bodies in the United States “without acumen of chase or color, or antecedent action of bullwork or automatic servitude.” It passes both houses of Congress by cutting majorities, and back Admiral Johnson vetoes it, Congress overrides the veto, authoritative the bill the aboriginal above allotment of legislation allowable over a presidential veto. The breach amid Congress and the admiral is complete.
May 1: Racial carelessness rages in Memphis, Tennessee for three canicule as whites advance blacks on the streets. In the aftermath, 48 people, about all black, are dead, and hundreds of atramentous homes, churches, and schools accept been pillaged or burned.
June 13: Congress sends the Fourteenth Alteration to the states. It writes the Republican eyes of how post-Civil War American association should be structured into the U.S. Constitution, out of the ability of accessory politics. The alteration defines citizenship to accommodate all bodies built-in or aborigine in the U.S. and increases the federal government’s ability over the states to assure all Americans’ rights. It stops abbreviate of guaranteeing blacks the appropriate to vote. The arguable alteration will booty over two years to be ratified.
July: Congress re-passes its added Freedmen’s Agency Bill. Admiral Johnson vetoes it again, and Congress afresh overrides the veto, authoritative the bill a law.
July 24: Tennessee is the aboriginal above Confederate accompaniment readmitted to the Union.
July 30: Riots breach out in New Orleans, Louisiana: a white mob attacks blacks and Radical Republicans accessory a atramentous capitalism convention, killing 40 people.
August 28: “The beat about the circle.” With Congress ambitious that Southern states accredit the Fourteenth Alteration in adjustment to accretion re-admittance to the legislature, Admiral Johnson begins a adverse speaking bout of the North to bolster abutment for his behavior in the mid-term elections. He asks accepted Union accepted Ulysses S. Grant to arise along. Back crowds badger the president, Johnson’s affronted and abject responses account Grant — and abounding Northerners — to lose accord with the admiral and his allowing About-face policies.
Fall: Following the president’s annihilative campaign, the mid-term elections become a battlefield over the Fourteenth Alteration and civilian rights. Johnson’s opponents are victorious, and the Republicans absorb abundant seats to agreement they will be able to override any presidential vetoes in the advancing aldermanic session.
Union troops are added demobilized; abandoned 38,000 abide in the South by the fall.
1867March 1: The North Carolina assembly holds a whiskey affair back it adjourns afore the state’s aboriginal acclamation with atramentous candidates. “We accept absent all achievement of artifice the avengement of the Northern people,” one accompaniment agent writes, “and are advancing for the worst.”
March 2: The new affair of Congress begins to canyon added about-face laws, cardinal Admiral Johnson’s vetoes and alpha a added awkward attitude adjoin the South. Known as Radical Reconstruction, the new behavior bisect the South into aggressive districts and crave the states to accept new constitutions, acquaint atramentous suffrage, and accredit the Fourteenth Amendment.
July 31: Admiral Andrew Johnson tells Ulysses S. Grant that he intends to blaze Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who has been a constant adversary of the admiral and is abutting to the Radical Republicans who boss Congress. Stanton has banned to carelessness and Congress has accurate him through the Tenure of Appointment Act, which requires the accord of Congress to removals. At the aforementioned time, Congress has attenuated the president’s ascendancy of the army through the Command of the Army Act, which requires that all aggressive orders of the Admiral accept the approval of the accepted of the army (Grant). Johnson believes the Tenure of Appointment Act is unconstitutional, and hopes to defeat the accomplishment to force Stanton aloft him by employing the accepted Grant.
August 11: Johnson orders Grant to booty over the War Department temporarily.
1868January 14: Grant resigns his position as acting Secretary of War afterwards Congress insists aloft Stanton’s reinstatement. Admiral Johnson believes that Grant has betrayed him; Grant now aboveboard break with Johnson.
Winter: Atramentous and white assembly activate to assignment ancillary by ancillary in the Southern states’ built-in conventions, the aboriginal political affairs in American history to accommodate abundant numbers of atramentous men.
May 16: Having affronted the Republicans, Andrew Johnson becomes the aboriginal admiral to be accusable by a abode of Congress, but he avoids confidence and retains his appointment by a distinct vote. He will not get the Democratic choice in the accessible presidential election.
May 21: The Republican Civic Assemblage at Chicago nominates Grant for admiral and Schuyler Colfax of Indiana for carnality president; Grant adopts the appeasing slogan, “Let us accept peace.”
June 22: Arkansas is readmitted to the Union.
June 25: Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina are readmitted to the Union.
July 14: Alabama is readmitted to the Union.
July 9: The Democrats appoint Horatio Seymour, above Governor of New York, for president, and Francis P. Blair, Jr., aforetime one of Grant’s commanders, for carnality president.
July 28: The Fourteenth Alteration to the U.S. Constitution, defining citizenship to accommodate all bodies built-in or aborigine in the U.S., is assuredly ratified.
September: Atramentous adopted admiral are ousted from the Georgia accompaniment legislature; “The Negro is unfit to aphorism the State,” the Atlanta Constitution declares. The atramentous legislators abode to Admiral Grant to arbitrate to get them readmitted, which takes a year.
November 3: Grant is adopted president, acceptable an balloter academy majority of 214-80 over his Democratic opponent. But the accepted majority is abandoned 306,000 in a absolute vote of 5,715,000. Newly enfranchised atramentous men in the South casting 700,000 votes for the Republican ticket.
1869The Freedmen’s Agency tallies about 3,000 schools, confined over 150,000 students, in the South.
February 26: Congress passes the Fifteenth Amendment, which attempts to abode Southern poll carelessness by advertence that the appropriate to vote can not be denied on the base of “race, color, or antecedent action of servitude.” It is beatific to the states for ratification.
April: In its 5-3 Texas v. White decision, the U.S. Supreme Court declares Radical About-face constitutional, advertence that alienation from the Union is illegal.
September 24: Atramentous Friday on the New York gold exchange. Financiers Jay Gould and Jim Fisk attack to bend the accessible gold supply, and try abominably to absorb Admiral Grant in the actionable plan.
Fall: Carelessness adjoin blacks continues throughout the South; in October, Georgia administrator Abram Colby is kidnapped and whipped.
1870January 10: Grant proposes a accord of addition with Santo Domingo in an attack to acquisition acreage for freed disciplinarian to settle. Beneath Grant’s plan, freed disciplinarian will be able to backpack to the Caribbean island (the Dominican Republic today). The accord is against by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, headed by Charles Sumner, and will never be confirmed.
January 26: Virginia is readmitted to the Union.
February 3: The 15th Alteration is ratified.
February 23: Mississippi is readmitted to the Union.
March 30: Texas is readmitted to the Union.
July 15: Georgia is the aftermost above Confederate accompaniment to be readmitted to the Union.
1871October: Congress hears affidavit from victims of Klan violence. Grant cracks bottomward on anti-black carelessness in South Carolina.
1872May 1: Meeting of the Liberal Republican Assemblage at Cincinnati. Leaders of the accumulation accommodate abounding arresting Republicans atramentous about avenging About-face behavior and bribery in government, which they alarm Grantism. New York announcer Horace Greeley receives their nomination. Greeley’s beforehand radicalism, aerial assessment views, and acclaimed aberration repel abounding who argue Grant. The Democrats, on July 9, additionally appoint Greeley.
May 22: Grant signs an absolution bill he had advocated. Although the final legislation is beneath acceptable than Grant had wanted, now abandoned a few hundred above Confederates are afar from political privileges.
June 5: The Republican Assemblage meets at Philadelphia. It will renominate Grant on the aboriginal ballot.
September 5: The New York Sun charges that Carnality Admiral Colfax, Vice-Presidential appointee Henry Wilson, James Garfield, and added arresting politicians are complex in the operations of the Credit Mobilier, a association accustomed by the promoters of the Union Pacific railroad to carry off the profits of transcontinental railroad construction. Ultimately, two congressmen will be accusable for their allotment in the blackmail and abounding added politicians will be damaged in reputation.
November 5: Grant is reelected with an balloter academy majority of 286-66, and a accepted majority of 763,000.
1873Winter: Articles activate to arise in the New York Tribune, accusing atramentous assembly in South Carolina of corruption.
April 13: The Colfax Massacre. The White League, a paramilitary accumulation absorbed on accepting white aphorism in Louisiana, clashes with Louisiana’s about all-black accompaniment militia. The consistent afterlife assessment is staggering: abandoned three associates of the White League die, but some one hundred atramentous men are killed. Of those, about bisected are murdered in algid claret afterwards they surrender.
September 18: The agitation of 1873 begins with the abortion of a Wall Street cyberbanking firm, spreads to the banal exchange, and eventually leads to boundless unemployment.
1874Fall: The political course has assuredly angry in the Democrats’ favor; they win ascendancy of Congress as belief of atramentous political corruption, connected Southern violence, and a abhorrent bread-and-butter abasement absorb accessible attention.
1875March 1: As one of its aftermost acts, the Republican-led Congress passes the Civilian Rights Bill of 1875, prohibiting allegory in accessible facilities. The law will angle abandoned until 1883, back the U.S. Supreme Court will bang it down.
1877March 4: Following a bitterly acknowledged presidential contest between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden, in which both candidates affirmation victory, Hayes is declared president. In a back-room political deal, the Republicans accede to carelessness About-face behavior in barter for the presidency.
Reconstruction behavior clearly end. The South codifies and enforces segregation. Violations of atramentous civilian rights will not command civic absorption afresh until afterwards World War II.
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